Articles

Application Note: Data for safe scale-up of a heterogeneous liquid phase reaction
The calorimetry (heat output) information provides a convenient means of monitoring the progress of the reaction. Combined with a simple visual observation of mixing it has enabled the process problem to be quickly identified and a solution to be tested.
Application Note: Evaluation of increase in throughput using a catalyst
A test of the effectiveness of an acid catalyst in reducing the batch time of an esterification reaction and whether the cooling system on a full scale reactor would be able to cope with the increased power output.
Application Note: Improvement in nitration process economics
Process optimistaion resulted in a significant increase in yield as well as simplified product work-up procedure, thus reducing the batch time in the process of nitration of an aromatic substrate.
Application Note: Investigation of plant crytallisation problem using an automated lab reactor
Looking at an existing process which invloved the crystallisation of an active pharmaceutical for an organic medium, precise control and recording of reactor and oil jacket temperature, plus stirrer speed enabled the study of the following: - Solubility curve, for different solvent purities - Systematic (factorial) study of several process variables and their influence on crystal shape and form.
Minimisation of Scale-up Difficulties
This article discusses what chemists and engineers can do in advance, both in the laboratory and kilo laboratory, to prevent or at least minimise scaleup issues. Scale-up of chemical processes, particularly those involving batch or semi-batch manufacture is well-known to be a problematic area of chemistry and chemical engineering, and can be costly when it goes wrong. By correctly choosing and designing the synthetic route to a fine chemical or drug substance, as well as controlling the reaction and work up/product isolation parameters, many of the difficulties in scale up can be avoided. The more complex a process is in terms of chemistry and unit operations, the more there is to go wrong.
Scale Up Of Hazardous Chemistry- With Thermal Runaway Potential
This paper describes (with examples) how with a range of experimental methods and with the correct equipment, it is possible to simulate a thermal runaway. The data produced (with samples less than 100ml) can help prevent potential hazards. (As published in Chemistry Today)
The Design of Safe Chemical Processes
A typical process in the pharmaceutical and related industries consists of a number of sequential steps where a range of carefully selected compounds are allowed to react in order to produce the required product or intermediate. In many cases, the reactions involved are exothermic, and therefore require cooling and careful process control in order to ensure safe operation. In addition, some of the raw materials or products may be unstable and have a tendency to thermally explode under certain operating conditions.