Application Note: Protection of dryer in the event of product composition
Adiabatic calorimetry in the Phi-TEC II shows that the product that needs drying before transportation will begin to decompose signficantly at around 100 degrees C (around 85 degrees C lower than quoted in the literature).
Exothermicity Characteristics of Wolf Lake Heavy Oil, Athabasca Tar Sand and Medium Heavy Clair Oil
High pressure accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) tests - using HEL's Phi-TEC II adiabatic calorimeter - have been performed on three different crude oils, at their respective reservoirs pressures. The experiments on medium heavy Clair oil and heavy Wolf Lake oil used clean silica sand, incorporating 3% kaolinite, to represent the reservoir matrix, whereas Athabasca Tar Sand was used in its preserved, virgin state.
Minimisation of Scale-up Difficulties
This article discusses what chemists and engineers can do in advance, both in the laboratory and kilo laboratory, to prevent or at least minimise scaleup issues. Scale-up of chemical processes, particularly those involving batch or semi-batch manufacture is well-known to be a problematic area of chemistry and chemical engineering, and can be costly when it goes wrong. By correctly choosing and designing the synthetic route to a fine chemical or drug substance, as well as controlling the reaction and work up/product isolation parameters, many of the difficulties in scale up can be avoided. The more complex a process is in terms of chemistry and unit operations, the more there is to go wrong.
Runaway reaction hazard and venting of cyanide reaction
The runaway reaction hazard of a cyanide reaction initiated by an amine and caustic has been studied extensively and a venting strategy formulated from the data. The relief size necessary to safely relieve such a reaction has been calculated using thermal runaway data for a number of different situations, allowing for two-phase flow.
Scale Up Of Hazardous Chemistry- With Thermal Runaway Potential
This paper describes (with examples) how with a range of experimental methods and with the correct equipment, it is possible to simulate a thermal runaway. The data produced (with samples less than 100ml) can help prevent potential hazards. (As published in Chemistry Today)
The Design of Safe Chemical Processes
A typical process in the pharmaceutical and related industries consists of a number of sequential steps where a range of carefully selected compounds are allowed to react in order to produce the required product or intermediate. In many cases, the reactions involved are exothermic, and therefore require cooling and careful process control in order to ensure safe operation. In addition, some of the raw materials or products may be unstable and have a tendency to thermally explode under certain operating conditions.