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Application Note: Method development for a crystallisation step
The use of computer control rapidly produced substantial improvements in the commercial viability of a process. This greatly improved the crystallisation step in the case of a product that previously took nearly a week to filter, wash and dry, thus dominating the production cycle.
Automated Measurement of Metastable Zones for Pharmaceutical Compounds
The automated laboratory reactor combined with turbidity meter method was used successfully to measure the metastable zone for a pharmaceutical intermediate, thus providing useful information to aid the development of the crystallization process for that compound.
Laboratory Product Focus: Crystallisation Tools for the Research Chemist
The need to study crystallisation is extremely widespread in the chemical industry due to the importance of solids as the final form of many products. The most basic information required is the solubility of crystals - proceeding without this basic information is like trying to locate a house without knowing the address - it can be done but will take a long time.
Minimisation of Scale-up Difficulties
This article discusses what chemists and engineers can do in advance, both in the laboratory and kilo laboratory, to prevent or at least minimise scaleup issues. Scale-up of chemical processes, particularly those involving batch or semi-batch manufacture is well-known to be a problematic area of chemistry and chemical engineering, and can be costly when it goes wrong. By correctly choosing and designing the synthetic route to a fine chemical or drug substance, as well as controlling the reaction and work up/product isolation parameters, many of the difficulties in scale up can be avoided. The more complex a process is in terms of chemistry and unit operations, the more there is to go wrong.
Multi-scale segmentation image analysis for the in-process monitoring of particle shape
On-line imaging represents a potentially powerful technique for real-time monitoring of the morphological forms during crystal growth, but a major challenge is the availability of methods for image analysis that need to be tolerant to the quality of on-line images, accurate, fast and robust. This paper describes a multi-scale segmentation methodology for analysis of images obtained for batch cooling crystallisation of (L)-glutamic acid using an on-line high-speed imaging system developed by the pharmaceutical manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline. The method proves to be able to analyse effectively the on-line images of different crystal morphological forms, and of varied qualities.