Automated Measurement of Metastable Zones for Pharmaceutical Compounds
The automated laboratory reactor combined with turbidity meter method was used successfully to measure the metastable zone for a pharmaceutical intermediate, thus providing useful information to aid the development of the crystallization process for that compound.
Minimisation of Scale-up Difficulties
This article discusses what chemists and engineers can do in advance, both in the laboratory and kilo laboratory, to prevent or at least minimise scaleup issues. Scale-up of chemical processes, particularly those involving batch or semi-batch manufacture is well-known to be a problematic area of chemistry and chemical engineering, and can be costly when it goes wrong. By correctly choosing and designing the synthetic route to a fine chemical or drug substance, as well as controlling the reaction and work up/product isolation parameters, many of the difficulties in scale up can be avoided. The more complex a process is in terms of chemistry and unit operations, the more there is to go wrong.
Multi-scale segmentation image analysis for the in-process monitoring of particle shape
On-line imaging represents a potentially powerful technique for real-time monitoring of the morphological forms during crystal growth, but a major challenge is the availability of methods for image analysis that need to be tolerant to the quality of on-line images, accurate, fast and robust. This paper describes a multi-scale segmentation methodology for analysis of images obtained for batch cooling crystallisation of (L)-glutamic acid using an on-line high-speed imaging system developed by the pharmaceutical manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline. The method proves to be able to analyse effectively the on-line images of different crystal morphological forms, and of varied qualities.